US Civics for Naturalization Quiz

I had to learn 100 questions and answers for my US Naturalization civics quiz this week, and my default way of learning something is to organize the information into an essay. Not the best work I've ever done, but it got me through the test, so good enough:

History

The region now occupied by the US was originally settled by Native Americans, probably travelling from the Far East, around 15,000 years ago.

Modern Native tribes include Apache, Arawak, Blackfeet, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Crow, Hopi, Huron, Inuit, Iroquois, Lakota, Mohegan, Navajo, Oneida, Pueblo, Seminole, Shawnee, Sioux, and Teton.

European colonists came to America to escape persecution, in pursuit of religious and political freedom, and economic opportunity.

The Atlantic slave trade took Africans to the American colonies as slaves. This practice was widespread by the time of the American Revolution.

The colonists decided to fight for freedom from British rule because:

  • They didn't want to pay high taxes to the British government without representation.
  • They did not like the British army being quartered in their houses.
  • They wanted self-government.

By the time of the declaration of independence, there were thirteen colonies that became the initial thirteen United States:

  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Virginia

These States fought the American Revolutionary War against Great Britain.

In 1803 (27 years after the declaration of independence), the United States bought the Louisiana territory from France.

Founding

Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence declared the United States to be independent of, and free from, the rule of Great Britain. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, and adopted on July 4th, 1776.

It notes the right of all men to enjoy life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

The American Constitution

The supreme law of the land is the constitution. It sets up and defines the government, and also enumerates the basic rights of American citizens and residents.

The idea of self-government is represented in the constitution's first three words: "We the people...".

The constitution was written at the constitutional convention of 1787, by the Founding Fathers. Its passage was supported by the Federalist Papers, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, under the pseudonym "Publius", after Publius Valerius Poplicola, a Roman aristocrat who led the overthrow of the monarchy to found the Roman Republic in 509 BC.

Benjamin Franklin is known as:

  • Oldest member of the constitutional convention,
  • The first Postmaster General of the United States,
  • Writer of "Poor Richard's Almanac",
  • Starter of the first free libraries,
  • A US diplomat.

George Washington is known as:

  • The first President
  • The "Father of our Country"

The original text of the constitution has since been modified by twenty-seven amendments, each of which is numbered, and takes the form of an addition to the existing text.

Rights and Responsibilities

The first ten amendments are known as "the Bill of Rights".

The first amendment prohibits the government from infringing on the right of residents in the US to:

  • Establish or practice any religion, or no religion at all.
  • Free speech.
  • Freedom of the press.
  • Peaceably assemble.
  • Petition the government for a redress of grievances.

The final four items above are together known as "freedom of expression".

In addition, the constitution establishes:

  • The right to bear arms.

US citizens are granted additional rights that do not apply to all residents, including:

  • Running for federal office
  • Voting in federal elections

And US citizens are additionally assigned responsibilities:

  • Jury service
  • Voting in federal elections

Voting in federal elections is thus established as both a right and a responsibility.

The pledge of allegiance declares loyalty to the US flag and the United States.

Ways for citizens to participate in their democracy include:

  • Voting
  • Join a political party
  • Help with a political campaign
  • Join a civic or community group
  • Give opinions to elected officials, such as calling Senators or Representatives.
  • Publicly support or oppose an issue or policy.
  • Run for office
  • Write to a newspaper

When becoming a naturalized US citizen, the oath of allegiance declares one will:

  • Give up loyalty to other countries
  • Be loyal to the United States
  • Obey the laws of the United States
  • Defend the constitution and laws of the United States
  • Serve in the US military (if the law demands it)
  • Serve civil projects for the nation (if the law demands it)

All men resident in the USA must register for selective service (a list from which draftees are chosen should the need arise) between the ages of 18 and 26.

The last day to submit federal income tax forms is April 15th.

Voting rights

The enfranchisement and disenfranchisement of different groups has been a moral and political issue throughout United States history.

The original constitution did not explicitly specify who was able to vote, and states demonstrated considerable diversity in whom they did or did not grant suffrage. In particular, most states only granted the vote to white, male, property owners - about 6% of the population.

In the 1820s, attitudes and state laws shifted, to allow all white males to vote in most states, although some laws removing the poor's right to vote continued until the 20th century, and practices that disproportionately affect the poor's ability to vote continue today.

Several constitutional amendments successively modified who can vote, notably:

  • The 15th Amendment of 1870, in the wake of the Civil War and Emancipation Proclamation, prevented the denial of voting rights based on a person's race. This was effectively interpreted to mean that men of any race could vote. However, states continued to prevent the majority of African Americans in the United States from voting, via Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses and the like. Only later in the 20th century were these laws ruled unconstitutional.
  • The 19th Amendment of 1920 allowed women to vote. However, in practice, women — who were rarely in control of independent sources of income — were usually still prevented from voting by the same discriminatory practices that prevented voting by poor or non-white men.
  • The 24th amendment of 1964 prohibited using a poll tax to control who could vote in federal elections.
  • The 26th amendment of 1971 lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. This was passed in response to Vietnam War protest, which noted that if draftees were considered old enough to be sent to fight, they should also be old enough to vote.

The following section was not part of the USCIS civics test. But I'm including it because it's clear that although the Declaration asserted "all men are created equal", subsequent laws and behavior has severely curtailed that assertion when it comes to issues such as being allowed to vote. So, who currently is, and is not, allowed to vote? Sometimes the best way to understand something is to trace its contours, by enumerating the exceptions.

Those who are currently legally denied the right to vote, for reasons that I personally find arguably understandable, are:

  • Those aged under 18.
  • Those deemed mentally "incapacitated" or "incompetent" by a conservatorship process.
  • Illegal or undocumented immigrants (16 million people).

The following people are also legally denied the vote, for reasons that I personally find controversial or outright wrong:

  • US Citizens and nationals who reside in the United States territories that are not States, such as Puerto Rico.
  • Washington DC residents (718,000 people) have had the right to vote in presidential elections since 1961, but no congressional elections have been held there since 1801.
  • Non-citizen residents of the United States such as myself (13 million people). This includes legal aliens in good standing, such as foreign spouses, asylum claimants and refugees, who might reside within the US, paying taxes, for years or decades. Contrast this with the United Kingdom, for example, where people in the similar category "with leave to remain" are able to vote.
  • The homeless (580,000 people) are often excluded from voting by residency requirements, or by the inability to register without a mailing address or proof of identity.
  • Current prisoners, in almost all states (5.5 million people). Some states impose a lifelong denial of voting rights to anyone with a previous felony record, which affects another 5.9 million people.
  • US Citizens who have never established residence in the United States may be denied the vote by various states.

The above categories represent 28.8 million people, around 11 percent of the adult population, who currently have no legal right to vote for US government positions due to reasons I personally find controversial or wrong.

Civil Rights

Susan B Anthony was a prominent activist for womens rights and civil rights.

Martin Luther King Jr. fought for civil rights, to try and provide equality for Americans of all races.

Wars

The United States has waged many wars, including:

18th Century Wars

  • American Revolutionary War to free America from British rule.
  • Cherokee-American wars
  • Northwest Indian War
  • Quasi-War (a naval war, allied with Britain, against France & Guadeloupe)

19th Century Wars

56 official wars, mostly resulting in the genocide or internment of various indigenous Native American nations. Sometimes the United States was allied with or fighting against Great Britain, and sometimes on the soil of other foes such as the Ottoman Empire and Morocco, China, Mexico, Spanish Florida, the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, or Guam. Notable among these wars were:

  • The War of 1812 against Great Britain
  • The Mexican-American war, in the disputed former Mexican territories of Texas, New Mexico, California and regions of Mexico.
  • The American Civil War.
  • The Spanish-American war.

The Civil War

The American Civil War of 1861 to 1865 was fought between the United States and the Confederacy of Southern States, over the issues of whether slavery was to remain legal in the Southern States, upon which many southern white livelihoods and businesses depended. This is sometimes framed as an academic disagreement about "States Rights" to self-government, but I personally find it hard to interpret that as anything other than a disingenuous fig leaf.

Abraham Lincoln lead the Northern states to victory in the Civil War, and is praised for saving or preserving the Union. He presided over the Emancipation Proclamation which ostensibly freed the slaves, although many still suffer from ongoing repercussions and outright racism even up to the present day.

20th Century Wars

31 official wars, some against outstanding Native American nations, others in diverse locations such as Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Russia, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Lebanon, Cambodia, Grenada, Libya, Iran & Persian Gulf, Panama, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Somalia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, Haiti, and Serbia.

Notable amongst these were:

  • World War I, during which the president was Woodrow Wilson.
  • World War II, against Germany, Japan and Italy, during which the president was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Eisenhower was a general in this war, and subsequently went on to become President.
  • Korean War
  • Vietnam War
  • Persian Gulf War

During the Cold war, the main concern of the United States was communism.

21st Century Wars

11 thus far, including Afghanistan, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Iraq.

Government

The constitution grants the federal government power to:

  • Print money.
  • Declare war.
  • Raise an army.
  • Make treaties.

The states are granted power to provide:

  • Protection in the form of police.
  • Fire departments.
  • Schooling and education.
  • Driver's licenses.
  • Zoning and land use.

The government defined by the constitution is divided into three branches:

  • The executive branch is formed by the President and their administration.
  • The legislative branch is formed by Congress.
  • The judicial branch is formed by the courts.

The separation of powers between these three branches forms a system of checks and balances that prevents any one part of government from becoming too powerful.

The Executive

The President leads the executive branch. They sign bills into law, and have veto power over new laws. They are the Commander in Chief of the military. Presidents are elected for four year terms, in a vote that takes place in November.

The President appoints a Cabinet of advisors. If the President cannot serve, succession falls to the Vice President, and then to the Speaker of the House.

Other cabinet-level positions include Attorney General, and Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defence, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, the Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs.

The President is currently Joseph Robinette Biden Jr (Democratic).

The Vice President is currently Kamala Harris (Democratic).

The Speaker of the House is currently Nancy Pelosi (Democratic).

The Legislature

Congress makes federal laws.

It comprises two parts:

  • The Senate.
  • The House of Representatives.

The Senate

The Senate comprises two senators from each state, yielding 100 total senators. Each senator represents the entirety of their state. Senators are elected for six year terms.

The House of Representatives

Each state is divided into a number of congressional districts, the number of which depends on the population of the state. Each district sends a single representative to the House, whose job is to represent the people of their specific district. Currently, this yields a total of 435 representatives. Representatives are elected for two year terms.

The Judicial branch

The courts review and explain laws, resolves disputes, and decides whether laws contravene the constitution.

The "rule of law" states that every individual, no matter how highly-placed, must obey the law, as must the government itself.

The highest court in the land is the Supreme Court, which comprises nine justices, lead by Chief Justice John Glover Roberts Jr.

States, Territories, and Geography

The United States of America contains 335 million people, of whom around 261 million are adults. The regions of the country comprise:

  • 50 States (the 48 contiguous States, plus Hawaii and Alaska)
  • Washington DC, the capital city and federal district (690,000 people).

Plus other territories:

  • American Samoa (43,000 people).
  • Guam (169,000 people).
  • Northern Mariana Islands (56,000 people).
  • Puerto Rico (3,286,000 people).
  • United States Virgin Islands (87,000 people).

For comparison, the least populated state, Wyoming, contains 581,000 people.

The Pacific Ocean is on the West Coast of the United States, while the Atlantic ocean is on the East Coast.

The two longest rivers within the United States are the Missouri and the Mississippi.

The Statue of Liberty is on Liberty Island, in New York Harbour, on the Hudson River near the south end of Manhattan in New York City.

States that border Canada are: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska.

States that border Mexico are: California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.

The flag has 50 stars to represent the 50 states, and 13 stripes to represent the initial 13 colonies.

The national anthem is The Star-Spangled Banner.

Independence Day is celebrated every July 4th. Other national holidays are:

  • New Year's Day
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Day
  • Presidents' Day
  • Memorial Day
  • Independence Day
  • Labor Day
  • Columbus Day
  • Veterans Day
  • Thanksgiving
  • Christmas

My State, Minnesota

The capital of Minnesota is St Paul.

The current Governor of Minnesota is Tim Waltz.

The current senators for Minnesota are:

  • Amy Klobuchar (Democratic)
  • Tina Smith (Democratic)

The current representative for my district, the first congressional district of Minnesota, is Jim Hagadorn (Republican).

Miscellanea

The economic system of the United States is a capitalist, free market economy.

The two major political parties in the US are the Democratic and Republican parties.

On 11th September 2001, terrorists attacked the United States by crashing commercial passenger airliners into the Pentagon in Virginia near Washington DC, and the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing almost 3,000 people.

Journey

Released on PlayStation 3 by thatgamecompany in 2012. Played on Windows 10 in 2022.

The slow-paced opening scenes, alternately trudging up and then surfing down sunbaked desert dunes, failed to sustain Zander's interest, so I ended up playing through its short runtime by myself.

In some ways it's an indictment of videogame culture that ten years later it still feels so fresh and radical to pair players up with another internet rando, while giving them no means to communicate or interact other than helping each other out, either leading by example, or exchanging wordless shouts. It seems like a pretty limited repertoire at first. I'm half tempted to just wander off ahead, alone, into the endless desert.

Then, you realize that standing close enough together recharges each other's magical flying scarves. Suddenly, it's enough. You cling to each other for dear life through the howling storms, double back to rescue each other from prowling beasts, and then fly exuberantly above the sunlit clouds, forever curving back to seek each other's life-giving sustenance.

I don't know who the two internet randos were, with whom I shared the first and second halves of my journey. But in those minutes together, we lived a lifetime's worth.

The Expanse

The Expanse screencap

(This post rescues content from a Facebook comment I got carried away with recently.)

There's so much to write about the Expanse. It's such a relief to find a science fiction show with an ambitiously futuristic setting depicted in a way that doesn't make scientifically literate people cringe and shout at the television.

Also, it shines at taking the time for quiet moments of character work, from Miller's lonely, poignant realization in s01 that he wasn't the talented office maverick, just incompetent and unreliable, right up to the quiet, unseen payoff of Naomi's years-long efforts to save her son from his father's influence, in the final seconds of s06.

On many axes, it's the best SF on television, which is saying something, as there are so many competitors. Science fiction output is following some sort of Moore's law of endless expansion, in response to society's need for mythic stories of relevance to modern life, itself a symptom of the meaning crisis of modern society. But this is a mixed blessing, because the resulting shows & movies are often drawn to using the superficial trappings of science fiction, spaceships and lasers (pew pew!), while failing to fulfil the deeper psychological needs of mythical or symbolic significance that brought about their creation. The Expanse is perhaps the prime example of this.

My fantastic SF podcast guy defines SF as the arena in which we forge new myths of psychological meaning for modern life, which are sorely needed as traditional myths dwindle in relevance, as they are predominantly based on nature and superstition. Movements such as spiritual atheism are a reflection that even the least spiritual amongst us recognize that something is missing.

I do concede that defining SF in this way is a bit of a cheat. It's somewhat aggrandizing, claiming any great mythic work as actually being part of the SF genre, an no doubt is a somewhat defensive reaction to mainstream dismissal of science fiction as puerile. But it does provide a marvellous framework for discussion, and adopting this definition makes several previously puzzling things fall into place.

It settles the revealing, never-ending debates over which works are, and are not, science fiction. Somewhat tellingly, to me, such debates are irreconcilable precisely because of the misnomer "science fiction", which was never really about the science to begin with, as this style of fiction has existed long before science was the focus. It only gravitated towards using science as it became apparent that is now where society's power and transformation springs from - our incarnation of gods and magic - and the name "science fiction" was then applied post-facto, missing the underlying fact that this is just mythic fiction with some modern attributes.

This definition perfectly explains things like how the first half of the movie "Sunshine" could be such astonishing science-fiction, while the second half - set aboard the exact same spaceship - is just a mediocre slasher flick.

So. SF is the arena within which we construct new mythic narratives.

By this I mean that great science fiction tends to create a story that resonates because it leans on powerful mythic tropes - symbolic representations of psychological significance, character arcs mirroring Jungian archetypes, thematic elements that are told allegorically, suggesting things to the reader/watcher on a level that can be more powerful than merely stating them directly to the conscious mind.

In this way, all-time-great examples such as 2001: A Space Odyssey (the title being conscious of this mythic entanglement) leans heavily into themes such as humanity watched over by an ancient, mysterious, godlike alien influence which has literally created humanity in its present form, and observes as we now reach a second inflection point, materializing not just a tale of personal transcendence (although it is certainly that), but one of species-wide sublimation - suggesting that it is time for us all to reach spiritual adulthood, to graduate to whatever comes next, to meet and be transformed by the wise and powerful force that has shepherded humanity through our previous prehistorical transitions.

I could go on with similar examples, but will just briefly mention the original Matrix movie, which is a story which resonates because it is absolutely soaked in allegory of both religious transcendence and Jungian archetypes - which are so on-the-nose that it cannot possibly be accidental, a fact acknowledged directly by the creators in the sequels, when they depict the Architect, ultimate villain encountered at the narrative peak of the story, as a prim, middle aged, white bearded gentleman, wearing an Edwardian suit. He speaks in a precise, almost Germanic manner. This is, unmistakably, Sigmund Freud. Why is Freud the villain of the Matrix? Because Freud was a contemporaneous antagonist to Jung, resisting Jung's ideas of self actualization through reconciliation of the archetypes, just as the Architect resists Neo's progression along that same path.

It may be my own lack of imagination, but compared to examples like this, the Expanse starts to look a bit thin. I don't see any symbolism or allegory. There is some good character work but no actual arcs of transcendence. Through the unfortunate realities of converting books to screen, large chunks of what could have been the most meaningful story were simply abandoned and will apparently never be finished on the screen. In their stead, what would have been mythic elements become a series of "McGuffin of the week", as we never circle back to resolve why the protomolecule was created, why it was sent to our ancient solar system, why it turns people into nuclear-powered zombies, and what force destroyed the protomolecule creators, and why? And that's just series one's unresolved elements.

So, lacking that, what the Expanse has to offer is its superlative world-building and sane, believable depictions of a gritty interplanetary future. Which is no small feat - arguably nobody else has done it better. But, for me, it isn't enough. Maybe that's just because I'm a godless heathen who looks to get my spiritual fix through TV shows about spaceships. Or maybe it's because science fiction is where we show ourselves what we're capable of, what to aim for, and I believe we can aim higher than just exciting technological dystopias.

Contact

Contact cover

by Carl Sagan, 1985.

I put this into my library queue as it's highly regarded in some parts, and I'd never read it. But at about chapter 2, I started to realize that I actually have read it, maybe thirty years ago. Not only that, but I'm pretty sure I actually have a copy somewhere on the shelves here at home. I'm going senile.

Oh well, at least it's the sort of senile that gives me quick, pleasant things to read.


Also this month: The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet by Becky Chambers. Once again, I wanted to like this so much. I started reading it twice, spaced about 18 months apart. But each time, I just couldn't get into it, and abandoned it about 1/3 in. It is indubitably me, not you.


The Witch's Heart

The Witch's Heart cover

by Genevieve Gornichec, 2021.

Old Norse mythology only briefly mentions the witch Angrboða, as the mother of three "monsters", fathered by the trickster god, Loki. This book explores her life, explicitly acknowledging her erasure as a woman, and resolves it, providing her a powerful story, in which she survives men, gods, and all.

Another fantastic Suze recommendation. Loved it.


Also this month: The Emperess of Salt and Fortune by Nghi Vo. I wanted to like this sooo much, and can see so many things about that are wonderful, but for some reason I just couldn't get in the mood. The problem is indubitably me, not you.


Circe

Circe cover

by Madeline Miller, 2018.

Recommended by The Suze, after reading it for one of her book clubs, and I absolutely loved it.

Tells the life story of the mythical Circe of the ancient Greek pantheon. Daughter of Helios, mightiest of the Titans, Circe is driven from her family by their capricious cruelty. She puts her meagre supernatural talents to work in service of witchcraft, amongst mortals. Along the way she meets many well-known mythological characters, such as Odysseus, and the Cretean Minotaur.

It was the writing style that captivated me. A timeless, elegant style uses powerful turns of phrase to spin a tale of drama and high passions, soaked in the psychological resonances so typical of Greek mythology. This style, along with the setting, reminded me powerfully of another favourite couple of novels of recent years, Mary Renault's absolutely fabulous The King Must Die and The Bull From the Sea.

Circe is my favorite book of the year so far, beating out even the marvellous Klara and the Sun.


Project Hail Mary

Project Hail Mary cover

A lot of people really like this, but it really isn't for me. The plot is an eerie recreation of the author's previous (and superior) big hit, The Martian, in which an astronaut finds themselves unexpectedly alone on an ambitious space mission, and has to science the shit out of things (by which we mean deploy some high-school science trivia, along with a penchant for very ordinary mental arithmetic) to save the day.

A badly written, distractingly unconvincing, and ultimately deeply annoying collision between hard science fiction and hand-wavy nonsense, with no literate themes, no higher meanings, no lurking Jungian archetypes - no mythology to it at all. Just a succession of edge-of-the-seat will-he-or-won't-he survive tense moments... Then: Yay, it worked, he did it! But in space!

Not even worth engaging the subjectivity-proof rating system for this one.

Rating: 2/10. I did finish it, but I wish I hadn't.


The Electric State

The Electric State cover

by Simon Stålenhag (2017)

I listen to a really fantastic science fiction podcast by Damien Walter, which is fascinatingly cerebral. Damien selected Stålenhag's work for his recent round-up of the 21 most significant science fiction storytellers of the 21st century (so far).

This is the same artist whose work inspired 2020's Tales from the Loop, and Damien's selection spurred me to engage more fully than just browse around Stålenhag's images all over the web.

I wasn't disappointed. The word count is low enough to be considered a short, but the main event is the accompanying illustrations, which are downright startling in their contrasts of the mundane and the fantastic.

Charting the journey of a runaway teenager and her small yellow robot, through a ruined near-future American landscape, littered with the debris of a high tech consumerist society addicted to an all-encompassing virtual-reality system. As they approach the edge of the continent, the world outside the car window unravels at an ever faster pace, as if somewhere beyond the horizon, the hollow core of civilization has finally caved in.


The Works of Larry Niven

A few days ago I mistakenly named Neal Stephenson as the author I'd read more of than any other. But I was forgetting about being young and inhaling books. On reflection, that title must surely belong to Larry Niven. As a teenager I read every last thing he did - or at least everything I could find in my hometown.

At one point my Mom picked up World Out of Time, to see what craziness her son was always buried in, and she concluded over the dinner table that I was reading it for the sex scenes she'd found. I presumably objected inarticulately that I was so little interested in Larry Niven's brief nerdy depictions of space sex that I'd barely even noticed they were there, but I have the impression she wasn't convinced. But it really was was his brand of hard science fiction that I was there for (I protest too much!) - revolving around ideas rather than character arcs, and the ruthless application of consistent world-views.

In inventing the Ringworld, Niven was inspired by Dyson spheres, first described by Olaf Stapledon, and popularized by Freeman Dyson. A full, solid Dyson sphere was, in some regards, inefficient. Dyson postulated miraculous gravity generators to make the inner surface of the sphere habitable. But this can be achieved much more feasibly by simply spinning the structure. However, all the matter inside the sphere, including any atmosphere, then pools at the equator. Niven observed that the superfluous surface of the sphere, away from the equator, can then be removed.

This vastly reduces the material needed to construct the megastructure. Given miraculous elemental transmutation, one could easily gather enough matter by recycling all the planets in a solar system as building material, even with a 1,000km "wall" along each edge to keep the fringes of the atmosphere in. Although this yields a much smaller habitable interior surface area than a full sphere, it's still something like a million times larger than planet Earth.

The aliens themselves weren't quite like any I've read before or since. The creepy sessile but sentient Grogs. The mysterious Outsiders, information brokers who are able to answer any question humanity has - if only we could afford the prices. The warlike, carnivorous Kzinti (picture a species of vicious feline Chewbaccas - surely the inspiration for Wing Commander's Kilrathi) forever attacking humanity before they were quite ready. You can't help but almost feel sorry for them. By the times of Ringworld, representatives such as Speaker to Animals (named for his shameful profession, interfacing with humans) are sufficiently adapted to working alongside humans to become formidable allies.

Perhaps Niven's greatest alien race was The Pierson's Puppeteers - like an ostrich with two necks, each topped with a single eye and dexterous mouth, while the brain resides safely in the body (pictured below, on the cover for Neutron star). The body plan makes so much sense in action. Mobile eyes mean they routinely view objects from both sides simultaneously, perfect for close-up detailed work, using the hand-like mouths. Or, spread the necks wide for amazing stereoscopic vision when distance estimation matters. And that gestural laugh - eyes turned inward to briefly gaze into one another, observing the self, no mirror required.

The psychology is also exquisite. Herbivores and herd-beasts, the Puppeteers are inveterate cowards. No human has ever met a sane one - only their more unstable individuals would venture out alone to run the risks of space travel and meeting alien species. However, they are very intelligent, more so than humans, and industrious, and manipulative. It becomes clear over the course of the books that Puppeteers have selectively bred the Kzinti into constructive docility by engineering the many human-kzin wars, and their plans for everyone else are scarcely less devious.

Finally, my personal favorite was always the Pak. As alien as could be, and yet they are us. On humanity's original homeworld, long before introduction to planet Earth, a symbiotic plant grows which young humans find uninteresting, but in middle-age they develop a compulsion to binge on it. It activates genes that provoke startling physiological and psychological changes, transforming the human from a breeder, into a protector - stronger, and with large joints for better leverage, with a tough wrinkled armour-like skin, much smarter, with a second heart, and ruthlessly dedicated to just one goal - protecting their own offspring. It is protectors who, it turns out many novels later, originally built the Ringworld. The absence of the transforming plant, which won't grow on Earth, means we grow without its benefits, leaving us with inadequate hearts, joints that fail with age, and an old-aged descent into feeble bodies and minds. Then, as the story begins, the first known interstellar spaceship shows up at Earth, piloted by one protector, come to rescue the failed colony, with a hold full of strange plant roots...

Wonders like these, from the novels and short stories set in his Known Space universe kept me up at night, and shaped the way I thought. Although Niven's writing had some mildly conservative tendencies, especially when under the influence of his militaristic writing partner Jerry Pournelle, it is also permeated with the necessity of a very liberal philosophy of non-judgemental tolerance of other lifestyles, both alien and human, a philosophy made explicit in one of Niven's Laws: "The only universal message in science fiction: There exist minds that think as well as you do, but differently."

It's clear I wasn't the only one spellbound. Niven's ideas have been influential throughout science fiction culture. Bank's Culture's Orbitals and the understandably much rarer full Rings are clear descendants, as is the eponymous megastructure/superweapon of the juggernaut Halo franchise, and countless other imitators. Niven's meticulous hard-SF approach to fantasy in The Magic Goes Away, and in particular his concept of the conservation of mana, was an influence on Magic: The Gathering, as acknowledged in the card Nevinyrral's Disk (Niven's name backwards), which uses magic to simultaneously accelerate it's own spin, and to hold itself together, thus rapidly using up all the mana in an area, rendering further magic unusable. Movies such as Wall-E throw in sly nods - the Axiom is labelled in a passing graphic as using a "General Dynamics Type Three Hull", which is a similar size and shape to Niven's "General Products Number Three Hull".

For years I remember toting Niven's various doorstop 500 page novels to one place or another, such as being forbidden from carrying one into the Houses of Parliament viewing gallery. All the better that they usually had these crazy great '70s covers, mostly by artist Peter Andrew Jones, from whom you can buy prints of some of them.

Collecting these today by Google image search, I see today that these funky covers are relatively rare - the vast majority of Niven's sales were of editions with far less interesting and less skillfully put together covers. So I think it's appropriate to collect and celebrate them here.


I've not even read half of what Niven wrote. By the '90s the crazy covers had been replaced by more conservative designs, and at the same time I drifted away to other things. At the time it felt more like Niven was drifting away from me, evolving in style over the years, losing something hard-to-characterize that I'd enjoyed, maybe just the rawness of his earlier works. Maybe his style was diluted through him writing so many books as partnerships, or, as I increasingly assumed, in an advisory role, lending his name to the cover for younger, less well-known authors, who did most of the work.

Looking back on it, with 30-or-so year's hindsight, there are also components of Niven's writing that are lacking, and I was slowly growing out of it. Hard SF often celebrates the elevation of ideas over characters, and while there is a value to that, particularly for those readers who are the most vulnerable to the sensation of wonder, it also needlessly shuns other aspects, like the emotional impact of character-driven drama or individual psychological epiphany. A more skilled writer, I now think, would have a broader range of tools to imbue the story with more emotional resonance and meaning.

Still, while the affair lasted, it was fabulous. Goodreads page counts indicates it was eleven thousand pages, beating my Neal Stephenson consumption by a clear thousand pages. Combining that with a very conservative estimate of the number of times I re-read each one, nearly twenty five thousand pages. What can I say, I was a teenager, with seemingly endless oceans of time.

The following are just his books that I've read. He has many others, especially many that are more recent than these.

Title Pages Times
read
Effective
pages
Rainbow Mars (1999) 477 1 477
Destiny's Road (1997) 448 1 448
The Ringworld Throne (1996) 368 1 368
Beowulf's Children (1995) 512 2 1,024
Flatlander (1995) 369 1 369
Crashlander (1994) 281 1 281
The Gripping Hand (1993) 413 2 826
The Barsoom Project (1989) 352 1 352
The Legacy of Heorot (1987) 383 2 766
The Smoke Ring (1987) 323 2 646
Footfall (1985) 524 3 1,572
The Integral Trees (1983) 272 2 544
Oath of Fealty (1981) 324 2 648
Dream Park (1981) 448 3 1,344
The Patchwork Girl (1980) 205 2 410
The Ringworld Engineers (1979) 307 2 614
Convergent Series (1979) 227 2 454
The Magic Goes Away (1978) 212 5 1,060
Lucifer's Hammer (1977) 629 2 1,258
A World Out of Time (1976) 246 3 738
Tales of Known Space (1975) 240 5 1,200
The Mote in God's Eye (1974) 596 3 1,788
A Hole in Space (1974) 196 2 392
The Flight of the Horse (1973) 212 5 1,060
Protector (1973) 218 4 872
Inconstant Moon (1971) 200 4 800
Ringworld (1970) 228 2 456
N-Space (1969) 693 1 693
The Long Arm of Gil Hamilton (1969) 182 2 364
All the Myriad Ways (1968) 181 2 362
A Gift from Earth (1968) 256 3 768
Neutron Star (1966) 285 4 1,140
The World of Ptavvs (1966) 188 4 752
totals 10,995 24,842

(Discussion on Damien Walter's Science Fiction Facebook group)


Termination Shock

Termination Shock cover

by Neal Stephenson, 2021

It's another 720-page doorstop from the much-beloved author (which is actually slightly slimmer than his average book, which would be 770 pages). It was enjoyable, but not life changing. Not as compelling as some of his previous. Reads a lot like a narrative wrapped around the author's own personal justifications for pro-active geo-engineering projects. Which, I have to admit, I was pretty horrified by the idea when I first heard about it - meddling further with a critical and horrifically complex dynamic system that we don't undertand, and all that.

The story presents the the scenario of countering the temperature rise caused by CO2 in the atmosphere by releasing high altitude sulphur dioxide, to reflect sunlight back into space. This mitigates many of the most prominent effects of climate change, such as high-temperatures, storms, forest fires, and sea-level rises.

It further presents the idea that it's relatively easy and cheap to do, and some nation or part thereof that cares the most - e.g. The Netherlands, or Venice, amongst others, will either take a crack at it, or else will cease to exist. So we might as well get used to the idea and be prepared for what, geopolitically, happens after that.

I don't know if it's simply the story making me increasingly familiar with the idea, or whether the depiction of the mechanism genuinely quells some of my worries, in that it seems easy to start at a small scale, monitor the results, scale up as required, and the fail-safe is that the sulphur should quickly fall out of the air, allegedly harmlessly, if we realize this was a bad idea. I've at least tempered my initial harshly negative viewpoint somewhat. So, mission accomplished, I guess?

I've probably read more text by Stephenson than any other writer. Hmmm. By Goodreads page counts:

Title Pages Times
read
Effective
pages
Zodiac (1988) 308 1 308
Snow Crash (1992) 559 2 1,118
Interface (1994) 640 1 640
The Diamond Age (1995) 499 3 1,497
The Cobweb (1996) 448 1 448
In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (1999) 160 2 320
Cryptonomicon (1999) 1,152 3 3,456
Quicksilver (2003) 927 1 927
The Confusion (2004) 815 1 815
The System of the World (2004) 908 1 908
Anathem (2008) 937 2 1,874
Reamde (2011) 1,044 1 1,044
Seveneves (2015) 880 1 880
Termination Shock (2021) 720 1 720
totals 9,997 14,955


Ten thousand pages, all from one author, or fifteen thousand if you include re-reads. Not bad! The number of re-reads is a reasonable proxy for the impact each book had on me at the time.

But on reflection, there is another contender...